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Coefficient of determination

The proportion of variability accounted for by a correlation and the square of the Pearson correlation coefficient

Confounding variable

A variable that covaries with an independent variable

Constant

A component of a Linear model, being the value of the dependent variable when the independent variable is equal to zero.

Contingency table

A table used to demonstrate the relationship between two or more variables, typically expressed as categories (see nominal data).

Continuous variable

Variable with an infinite number of possible values.

Critical significance level

The significance level selected for the testing of a hypothesis, usually denoted by the lowercase Greek letter alpha (α). If the probability calculated for the test is lower than the critical significance level, the result is unlikely to have occurred by chance and the null hypothesis is rejected.

Critical value

The value of a statistic that corresponds to a given level of probability