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The symbol given to the pearson correlation coefficient.
The symbol given to the coefficient of determination, the proportion of variability accounted for by a correlation and the square of the pearson correlation coefficient.
The act of selecting individuals from a population without bias.
The difference between the highest and lowest value (a measure of variability and an example of a descriptive statistics).
If data are related, an observation of one variable can be linked to a corresponding observation of a second variable. Obviously, this means that there must be the same number of observations in each set of data (see also unrelated data).
An educated guess to a research question.