## S

### Sample

A subset of data from a population.

### Sample size (n)

The number of individuals / items in a sample.

### Sampling distribution

The frequency distribution of a statistic (e.g. mean).

### Sampling error

The discrepancy between a statistic and a population.

### Scale data

Ranked data with scale.

### Slope

The slope of a linear model is the increase in a dependent variable for a given increase in the independent variable.

### Spearman correlation

A non-parametric test for the significance of the linear relationship between two variables.

### Standard deviation (s or σ)

The square root of the variance (a measure of variability and an example of a descriptive statistics).

### Standard error of the mean

The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of means.

### Standardized normal distribution

A normal distribution whose mean has been shifted to zero, and the x axis marked in units of stanard deviation (Z-Scores).

### Statistic

A value which describes a sample.

### Straight line

See linear model or linear relationship.

### Sum of squares

The sum of a squared deviations.