NUMBAT OER - Open Educational Resources
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Sample

A subset of data from a population.

Sample size (n)

The number of individuals / items in a sample.

Sampling distribution

The frequency distribution of a statistic (e.g. mean).

Sampling error

The discrepancy between a statistic and a population.

Scale data

Ranked data with scale.

Slope

The slope of a linear model is the increase in a dependent variable for a given increase in the independent variable.

Spearman correlation

A non-parametric test for the significance of the linear relationship between two variables.

Standard deviation (s or σ)

The square root of the variance (a measure of variability and an example of a descriptive statistics).

Standard error of the mean

The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of means.

Standardized normal distribution

A normal distribution whose mean has been shifted to zero, and the x axis marked in units of stanard deviation (Z-Scores).

Statistic

A value which describes a sample.

Straight line

See linear model or linear relationship.

Sum of squares

The sum of a squared deviations.