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A subset of data from a population.
Sample size (n)
The number of individuals / items in a sample.
The frequency distribution of a statistic (e.g. mean).
The discrepancy between a statistic and a population.
Ranked data with scale.
The slope of a linear model is the increase in a dependent variable for a given increase in the independent variable.
A non-parametric test for the significance of the linear relationship between two variables.
Standard deviation (s or σ)
The square root of the variance (a measure of variability and an example of a descriptive statistics).
Standard error of the mean
The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of means.
Standardized normal distribution
A normal distribution whose mean has been shifted to zero, and the x axis marked in units of stanard deviation (Z-Scores).
A value which describes a sample.
Sum of squares
The sum of a squared deviations.